Brazil has five macro regions each with its own distinctive eco-weather system - Central West, North East, North, South East, South. These five regions are then divided into 27 states, which includes the Federal District of Brasilia, which are then split into municipalities, with their own laws and governments – over 5,500 – and then sub-divided into districts – just under 9,300.
1) Central West
2) North East
4) South East
The large tropical pink area in the middle is the Central West region which includes the states of Goiás, Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul, as well as the Federal District of Brasilia. The land is undulating and is known locally as cerrado, with mainly small trees and shrubs. Nowadays most of it has been cleared for farming – soya beans – and feeding large herds of cattle. In the South West there are the Pantanal wetlands, the home of considerable wildlife, many birds and cayman, and has about 10 million people.
The semi-arid Tropical region of the Northeast has nine states – Alagoas, Bahia, Ceara, Maranhao, Paraiba, Pernambuco, Piaui, Rio Grande de Norte and Sergipe – which are some of the hottest parts of Brazil. It is home to over 18% of the rural population and has received support from the Government with large funding programmes. Some of the states - Bahia, Pernambuco and Rio Grande de Norte - have made great strides with agriculture, tourism around the coast and industry, notably with car manufacturing – Ford -in Bahia.
The equatorial North covers the entire Amazon and is the largest region in Brazil amounting to over 45%. It includes seven states from west to east - Rondônia, Acre, Amazonas, Roraima, Pará, Amapá and Tocantins. As we all know the amazon is the largest tropical forest on the Earth and our principal lung. The forest has produced many things in the past – rubber and cocoa – and now is the home for minerals, farming and raising huge herds of cattle. There have been major problems with logging, with the government passing a series of laws to limit the rate of deforestation. The population has always been very sparse but has grown gradually over the past 40 years and now has 7% of the total.
The industrial heartland of Brazil is housed in the South East region comprising the four states of Sao Paulo, Minas Gerais, Espírito Santo and Rio de Janeiro. It is home to nearly 40% of the population and covers about 11% of the Brazil’s land mass. The main driver to the industry and population statistics is the migration from all over the world, which has created the highest living standard in Brazil, some of the densest urban populations and the most congested city streets. It also has one of the world’s largest mega cities in Sao Paulo and the state of Sao Paulo produces more than half the industrial output for the country – auto, aero, chemical, IT - plus huge quantities of a food from its massive agriculture sector.
Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul, and Santa Catarina make up the final area in the temperate South, equating to about 7% of the land mass and with 14% of the population. It is located south of the Tropic of Capricorn and kept colder than the rest of Brazil by the cold Falkland current. The region can feel very Germanic due to the high level of immigration from Germany. The coast is heavily populated with the main cities of Porto Alegre and Curitiba and as well has a very productive agricultural sector and industry that is involved with textiles and the growing Oil & Gas sector.